The Papillon Foundation continually searches the Internet for news articles, legal forms, and instructional videos concerning the creation and expungement of criminal records all over the world.
We have been astounded by the number and diversity of criminal databases which exist, so we are building a list so our users will have some idea of not only the sheer size and complexity of criminal databases in the United States, but also the massive amount of criminal (and non-criminal) data which is collected, stored and shared globally.
Here is our alphabetical list of global criminal databases. If you know of a criminal database which is not on our list, send us an email and we will add it.
Biometric Center of Excellence
The FBI has started collecting information from academia, private industry and law enforcement agencies with the goal of creating a tattoo database to augment its collection of biometric data. The bureau’s biometric clearinghouse builds databases and tools related to fingerprints, DNA and iris scans.
Care.com: What’s Covered by a Background Check
Care.com allows families to connect with millions of caregivers to manage the lifecycle of care challenges families face: childcare, including special needs, senior care, pet care, housekeeping, tutoring, and more. The Company also offers its suite of services as an employee benefit to Fortune 500 companies, higher education institutions, technology and service companies, and a variety of industries.
Controlled Substances Prescription Monitoring Program is a statewide database linked into more than 3,200 practitioners and 1,641 pharmacies in the state of Arizona.
COPLINK organizes vast quantities of seemingly unrelated data to provide tactical, strategic and command-level users with access to shared data in a single, or multiple, consolidated repositories. Its proven ability to quickly identify investigative leads helps agencies solve crimes faster, thereby helping to keep officers and communities safer.
CrimTrac is the national information-sharing service for Australia’s police, law enforcement and national security agencies.
The DICE database contains about 1 billion records. The majority of the records consist of phone log and Internet data gathered legally by the DEA through subpoenas, arrests and search warrants nationwide. Records are kept for about a year and then purged.
Data pours into the DEA from the FBI, CIA, NSA, IRS, Homeland Security and at least 19 other agencies. It then goes into a database called DICE, where it is used by the DEA and anyone else the DEA gives access.
Disclosure Scotland issues certificates – known as ‘Disclosures’ – which give details of an individual’s criminal convictions, or state that they have none. Enhanced Disclosures, where appropriate, will also contain information held by police forces and other Government bodies. It also manages the Protecting Vulnerable Groups Scheme on behalf of Ministers.
DoD plans sexual assault crime database
The Defense Department could take a leap forward in its sexual assault prevention programs this summer with the planned deployment of an all-service database to track the names of victims and alleged offenders, the nature of the assaults, and the outcomes, if any, of legal proceedings.
FATAL GAPS: How Missing Records in the Federal Background Check System Put Guns in the Hands of Killers
Millions of records identifying seriously mentally ill people and drug abusers as prohibited purchasers are missing from the federal background check database because of lax reporting by state agencies.
Since the Fatal Gaps report was issued, 35 states added more than 300,000 new mental health records to the NICS system, increasing the size of the database by 26 percent. The vast majority of this growth – 88 percent – was driven by four states: California, Oregon, Texas and Virginia. Sixteen states failed to submit any new records during this period.
Inmate Locator is a database of adult inmates currently in a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation institutions.
The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, or IAFIS, is a national fingerprint and criminal history system operated by the FBI. It includes not only fingerprints, but corresponding criminal histories; mug shots; scars and tattoo photos; physical characteristics like height, weight, and hair and eye color; and aliases. The system also includes civil fingerprints, mostly of individuals who have served or are serving in the U.S. military or have been or are employed by the federal government. The fingerprints and criminal history information are submitted voluntarily by state, local, and federal law enforcement agencies.
IAFIS is the largest biometric database in the world, housing the fingerprints and criminal histories for more than 70 million subjects in the criminal master file, along with more than 31 million civil prints. Included in the FBI’s criminal database are fingerprints from 73,000 known and suspected terrorists processed by the U.S. or by international law enforcement agencies who work with the FBI.
Interagency Border Inspection System (IBIS) is a United States Government computer-based system that provides the law enforcement community with files of common interest.
IBIS provides access to the Federal Bureau of Investigation National Crime Information Center (NCIC) and allows its users to interface with all 50 U.S. states via the National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (NLETS).
IBIS physically resides on the Treasury Enforcement Communications System (TECS) at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Data Center.
In addition to U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS), law enforcement and regulatory personnel from 20 other federal agencies or bureaus use IBIS.
Some of these agencies are the FBI, Interpol, DEA, ATF, the IRS, the Coast Guard, the FAA, Secret Service and the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, just to name a few.
Also, information from IBIS is shared with the Department of State for use by Consular Officers at U.S. Embassies and Consulates.
IBIS keeps track of information on suspect individuals, businesses, vehicles, aircraft, and vessels. IBIS terminals can also be used to access NCIC records on wanted persons, stolen vehicles, vessels or firearms, license information, and criminal histories.
From Tennessee to the District of Columbia, police are using mobile and stationary surveillance cameras to collect and store license plates of residents who have committed no crime—so that they can be found if they ever do.
In Tennessee, police utilize cameras mounted atop patrol cars that can capture thousands of license numbers each day. The information is then loaded into an ever-expanding database, which can help officers locate a vehicle in the event its owner is suspected of criminal behavior. The program is now expanding to include stationary camera mounted next to busy roads.
The United States Office of Inspector General has the authority to exclude individuals and entities from Federally funded health care programs pursuant to sections 1128 and 1156 of the Social Security Act and maintains a list of all currently excluded individuals and entities called the List of Excluded Individuals and Entities (LEIE). Anyone who hires an individual or entity on the LEIE may be subject to civil monetary penalties.
The Mail Isolation and Tracking System is operated by the U.S. Postal Service. It takes a photograph of every letter and package mailed in the United States — about 160 billion pieces in 2012 — and occasionally provides the photos to law enforcement agencies that request them as part of criminal cases.
The Postal Service does not maintain a massive database of the letter images. The scanning machines at the mail processing centers only keeps images of the letters they scan.
The California Department of Justice’s Internet web site which lists designated registered sex offenders in California. This site will provide you with access to information on more than 63,000 persons required to register in California as sex offenders.
Movement Alert List(MAL) is administered by the Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship, is a computer database that stores biographic details of identities and travel documents of immigration concern to Australia.
As at end of July 2010 there were approximately 630,000 identities of interest listed on MAL. People may be listed on MAL when they have serious criminal records.
N-DEx, the Law Enforcement National Data Exchange, is a vast data-sharing system that the FBI calls a one-stop shop for law enforcement and crime analysts. N-DEx brings together data from law enforcement agencies throughout the United States, including incident and case reports, booking and incarceration data, and parole/probation information. N-DEx detects relationships between people, vehicles/property, location, and/or crime characteristics.
NamUs, the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System, is a national centralized repository and resource center for missing persons and unidentified decedent records. NamUs is a free online system that can be searched by medical examiners, coroners, law enforcement officials and the general public from all over the country in hopes of resolving these cases.
In mid-March 2012, Argentina’s Security Minister, Nilda Garré, and Attorney General, Esteban Righi, signed an agreement to establish the National Central Ballistic Evidence Database. This database will greatly streamline the investigation of firearm crime and allow investigators to track the use of a single weapon across multiple crimes.
The National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an incident-based reporting system for crimes known to the police. For each crime incident coming to the attention of law enforcement, a variety of data are collected about the incident. These data include the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.
New Jersey Prescription Monitoring Program is a statewide database that collects prescription data on Controlled Dangerous Substances and Human Growth Hormone dispensed in outpatient settings in New Jersey, and by out-of-state pharmacies dispensing into New Jersey.
According to a recent news article, the database will help the Division of Consumer Affairs and other law enforcement agencies identify and investigate individuals and businesses suspected of fraudulently diverting controlled drugs for abuse.
Next Generation Identification (NGI) is the FBI’s massive biometric database that may hold records on as much as one third of the U.S. population. NGI builds on the FBI’s legacy fingerprint database—which already contains well over 100 million individual records—and has been designed to include multiple forms of biometric data, including palm prints and iris scans in addition to fingerprints and face recognition data. NGI combines all these forms of data in each individual’s file, linking them to personal and biographic data like name, home address, ID number, immigration status, age, race, etc. This immense database is shared with other federal agencies and with the approximately 18,000 tribal, state and local law enforcement agencies across the United States.
PIPS Technology develops and manufactures ALPR (Automated License Plate Recognition) systems.
Police Real Time Online Management Information System (PROMIS) is the Australian Federal Police administrative system used to record crime and police incidents.
PRIME-BC is the “Police Records Information Management Environment” for the province of British Columbia, Canada. It is a database and records management system that all British Columbia police forces use to collect, use and disclose law enforcement information.
PRISM is a clandestine mass electronic surveillance data mining program operated by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) since 2007. PRISM began in 2007 in the wake of the passage of the Protect America Act under the Bush Administration. The program is operated under the supervision of the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA Court, or FISC) pursuant to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA).Its existence was leaked six years later by NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who warned that the extent of mass data collection was far greater than the public knew and included what he characterized as “dangerous” and “criminal” activities. The disclosures were published by The Guardian and The Washington Post on June 6, 2013.
A document included in the leak indicated that PRISM was “the number one source of raw intelligence used for NSA analytic reports.”
Richmond County Felony Cases is database of all felony cases in Richmond County, Georgia, from 2000 to 2011.
The Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) program is a web-based service that helps federal, state and local benefit-issuing agencies, institutions, and licensing bureaus determine the immigration status of benefit applicants so only those entitled to benefits receive them.
Under Secure Communities, everyone booked into a jail is fingerprinted and those prints are checked against millions of others held in a U.S. Homeland Security Department database. The federal government collects fingerprints from a variety of people, including those caught crossing the U.S. border illegally.
Sensible Sentencing Trust is a private offender database of violent offenders, paedophiles, and sex offenders in New Zealand.
Serial Killer Detector
Ever wanted to be a homicide detective? Here’s your chance. Using this application, created by Scripps National Reporter Thomas Hargrove and Multimedia Producer Jason Bartz, plug in location, type of weapon, age, sex and other factors to reveal clusters of murders — the tell-tale sign of a serial killer — in your city or state.
Tattoo Recognition Database Could Help Combat Crime and Terrorism
To identify the tattoos connected to criminal activity, Michigan State University is conducting a research project on biometric tattoo recognition technology, where images of tattoos on individuals are matched with tattoo images in a database — something the FBI has been interested in since July.
The Tennessee Fusion Center connects and shares information between about 450 law enforcement agencies in Tennessee. In addition to TBI, the center is staffed by representatives from the FBI, federal and state homeland security, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, state probation and parole, the state correction department and metro Nashville police department.
In large room inside the TBI headquarters in Nashville, analysts scour and vet a variety of information, from arrest reports and search warrants to tips and leads from the public. More than 30 analysts and agents work out of the center that operates seven days a week.
The creation of fusion centers across the country has led to concerns about increased police surveillance and privacy violations. The center’s website once listed the American Civil Liberties Union of Tennessee as “suspicious activity,” after the organization sent a letter to the state’s public school superintendents that encouraged schools to be supportive of all religious beliefs during the holidays.
The FBI’s Terrorist Screening Center maintains the U.S. government’s consolidatedTerrorist Watchlist—a single database of identifying information about those known or reasonably suspected of being involved in terrorist activity. According to media reports, the secret No Fly List is derived from this database. Most people on the No Fly List are reported to be from other countries; about 500 are reported to be Americans. Travelers must now provide their full name, birthdate and gender when purchasing an airline ticket so the government can screen them against the terror watch list.
The NSA’s Utah Data Center in Bluffdale, Utah, is a 1,000,000 square foot, $2 billion facility which is the “cloud” where the trillions of millions of intercepted phone calls, e-mails, and data trails will reside, to be scrutinized by distant analysts over highly encrypted fiber-optic links. It is nicknamed “The Matrix.” It is, in some measure, the realization of the “total information awareness” program created during the first term of the Bush administration.
Vermont Prescription Monitoring System
According to a recent newspaper article, aides to Gov. Peter Shumlin are looking for ways to overcome patient privacy concerns at the state Health Department as they prepare legislation that would give a select team of Vermont State Police drug investigators access to this confidential database that tracks the dispensing of prescription medications in Vermont.
VINELink is the online version of VINE (Victim Information and Notification Everyday), the National Victim Notification Network. This service allows crime victims to obtain timely and reliable information about criminal cases and the custody status of offenders 24 hours a day.
The Canadian Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System or ViCLAS, which costs $12 to $15 million annually to run, contains details on more than 400,000 cases and has been credited in recent months with helping investigators link — and in some cases solve — a variety of crimes, including sexual assaults and the luring of minors on the Internet.
Since its inception, the system has been licensed to police forces in other countries, including Britain, France, Germany and New Zealand.
Virginia Sex Offenders Registry
Only information on registered sex offenders allowed to be disclosed under Virginia law appears on this web site.
The Western Identification Network was formed in May 1988 to facilitate the purchase of a multi-state Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) System. In June 1989, the funding was appropriated by legislatures in Alaska, California, Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming to create the first multi-state AFIS network.
Initially, the system had a centralized automated database of 900,000 fingerprint records and with the connectivity to the Alaska, California, and Washington systems the number of searchable fingerprint records increased to more than 14 million.
Helena, Montana joined WIN in October 1992, adding 59,500 criminal fingerprint cards to the WIN database. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the Postal Inspection Service and the Secret Service all joined WIN and became operational in 1991. The Internal Revenue Service became operational in 1993. The Federal Bureau of Investigation became operational in September 1997 and the Drug Enforcement Administration became operational in 1998. Alaska Department of Public Safety joined as a Central Site member in 1998.